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Introduction Biodiesel is Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) which is used as a renewable fuel in diesel engines. Extraction of lipid from various flora sources, including Sunflower, Palm, Canola or animal oils, with a Trans-Esterification reaction between alcohol and Triglyceride (TG), leads to production of Biodiesel and Glycerin. The production cost of biodiesel is so important that is now considered as the greatest obstacle during scale-up process. In this research, a model-type of biodiesel...
Topics: Biodiesel process design, Integration and simulation, Heat exchangers network, Pinch technology,...
Introduction Sugarcane is an important plant in the world that cultivate for the production of sugar and energy. For this purpose, evaluation of Sugarcane (SC) and Energycane (EC) methods is necessary. Energy is vital for economic and social development and the demand for it is rising. The international community look toward alternative to fossil fuels is the aim of using liquid fuel derived from agricultural resources. According to calculations, about 47% from renewable energy sources in...
Topics: Energy, Harvesting, Simple additive weights, Sugarcane
Introduction Global solar radiation is the sum of direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation. Weather forecasts, agricultural practices, and solar equipment development are three major fields that need proper information about solar radiation. Furthermore, sun in regarded as a huge source of renewable and clean energy which can be used in numerous applications to get rid of environmental impacts of non-renewable fossil fuels. Therefore, easy and fast estimation of daily global solar...
Topics: Bayesian regularization, Daily temperature, Global solar radiation, Neural Network
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Introduction The most important post-harvest mechanical damage is bruising. Bruising occurs during the stages of handling, transporting and packaging due to quasi-static and dynamic loads. Vibrations of tomato fruits during transportation by truck will decrease their quality. More than 2.5 million tons damages have been reported during tomato transportation in Iran. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize different parameters of damages during road transportation in order to detect and prevent...
Topics: Bruising, Energy absorbed, suspension, Tomatoes
Introduction The demand of pre-determined optimal coverage paths in agricultural environments have been increased due to the growing application of field robots and autonomous field machines. Also coverage path planning problem (CPP) has been extensively studied in robotics and many algorithms have been provided in many topics, but differences and limitations in agriculture lead to several different heuristic and modified adaptive methods from robotics. In this paper, a modified and enhanced...
Topics: Agricultural vehicles, Boustrophedon decomposition algorithm, Flat fields, Field configuration,...
Introduction Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process of breaking down organic matter, such as manure, in the absence of oxygen by concerted action of various groups of anaerobic bacteria. The AD process generates biogas, an important renewable energy source that is composed mostly of methane (CH 4 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which can be used as an energy source. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is therefore a type of biofuel. Enhancement of biogas production from cattle dung or...
Topics: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Cow manure, Modeling, Semi continuously reactor
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Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel about...
Topics: Biodiesel, Diesel Engine, Energy analysis, Useful power, Waste cooking oil
Introduction The color of soil depends on its composition and this feature is easily available and rather stable. Fast and accurate determination of soil organic matter distribution in the agricultural fields is required, especially in precision farming. General laboratory methods for determining the soil organic carbon are expensive, time-consuming with many repetitions, and high consumption of chemicals. Soil scientists use the Munsell soil color diagrams to define the soil color. Due to the...
Topics: Digital camera, Neural Networks, Organic carbon, Precision agriculture
Introduction Agricultural productions has been identified as a major contributor to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) on a global scale with about 14% of global net CO 2 emissions coming from agriculture. Identification and assessment of environmental impact in the production system will be leading to achieve the goals of sustainable development, which would be achieved by life cycle assessment. To find the relationship between inputs and outputs of a production process, artificial...
Topics: Alfalfa, ANFIS, Bukan township, Electricity, GWP, LCA, Modeling
Introduction Soil compaction is one of the most destructive effects of machine traffic. Compaction increases soil mechanical strength and reduces its porosity, plant rooting and ultimately the yield. Nowadays, agricultural machinery has the maximum share on soil compaction in modern agriculture. The soil destruction may be as surface deformation or as subsurface compaction. Any way machine traffic destructs soil structure and as result has unfavorable effect on the yield. Hence, soil compaction...
Topics: Artificial neural network, Modeling, Multilayer perceptron, Soil compaction
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Introduction Today, most of the agricultural machines for doing agricultural operations and covering the entire farm, must move in the farm, and travel a certain distance without doing anything useful. Common agricultural machines are controlled by human beings using habits, machinery models, and personal experiences without using computer-based tools. This trend leads to repetitive patterns and affect farm efficincy. Therefore, applying optimization techniques in determining the optimum...
Topics: Field efficiency, Genetic algorithm, Pattern of traffic, Route planning
Introduction Pomegranate ( Punica grantum L.) is classified into the family of Punicaceae. One of the most influential factors in postharvest life and quality of horticultural products is temperature. In precooling, heat is reduced in fruit and vegetable after harvesting to prepare it quickly for transport and storage. Fikiin (1983), Dennis (1984) and Hass (1976) reported that cold air velocity is one of the effective factors in cooling vegetables and fruits. Determining the time-temperature...
Topics: Cooling rate, Pomegranate, Precooling, Unsteady heat transfer
Introduction No use of advanced mechanization and weakness in post harvesting technology are the main reasons of agricultural losses. Some of these wastes (agricultural losses) are related to crop growing conditions in field and the remaining to processing of sugar in mill. The most useful priority setting methods for agricultural projects are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). So, this study presents an introduction of application manner of the AHP as a mostly common method of setting...
Topics: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Loss, Sugarcane
Introduction The compaction of soil by agricultural equipment has become a matter of increasing concern because compaction of arable lands may reduce crop growth and yield, and it also has environmental impacts. In nature, soils could be compacted due to its own weights, external loads and internal forces as a result of wetting and drying processes. Soil compaction in sugarcane fields usually occurs due to mechanized harvesting operations by using heavy machinery in wet soils. Adding plant...
Topics: Compressive Strength, Plant residues, Plate sinkage test, Pre-compaction stress, Wetting and Drying
Introduction One of the problems which considered in recent years for grain harvesting is loss of wheat during production until consumption and tenders the offers for prevention of its especially in harvesting times by combine harvesting machine. Grain harvesting combines are good examples of an operation where a compromise must be made. One would expect increased costs because of natural loss before harvesting, because of cutter bar loss, because of threshing loss, because of greater losses...
Topics: Combine, Laboratory simulator, Modeling, Wheat
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Introduction Today, hybrid seeds are expensive because the company that produces them spends a lot of money on research and development that often takes years to accomplish. So precise planting of seeds in order to create the best growing condition for all seeds is important. Modified size and shape of seeds for precision planting, providing macro and micro nutrients since the start of seed germination and control pests and diseases are goals that are possible by coating seeds. The overall...
Topics: Coating seed, Physical strength of pellet, Rotary pan coater, Spray gun
Introduction With increase in world population, one of the approaches to provide food is using site-specific management system or so-called precision farming. In this management system, management of crop production inputs such as fertilizers, lime, herbicides, seed, etc. is done based on farm location features, with the aim of reducing waste, increasing revenues and maintaining environmental quality. Precision farming involves various aspects and is applicable on farm fields at all stages of...
Topics: Classification, Machine vision, Segmentation, Video processing, Weeds
Introduction Current study tries to find a new simple and practical real-time technique to estimate forage crop nutritional quality indices at field conditions. Estimating these indices help producers to have field quality variation layer to reach the goals of Precision Agriculture. Previous studies have shown that standardized shear characteristics of crop stem would be a good indicator for some nutritional quality indices. In previous studies, laboratory tests were conducted at controlled...
Topics: Forage, Nutritional quality indices, Precision agriculture, Unitized shearing characteristics
Introduction In most small and medium-size traditional animal farms, silage corn is chopped manually. In order to prepare appropriate chopper for small animal production firms, a small electrical powered chopper was designed and developed. Materials and Methods The machine consisted of different parts, including chassis, driveline, power transmission, feeding and cutting unit. To provide the power for cutting cylinder and feeding rollers, 3.7 kW and 1.5 kW electro-motors were selected and used,...
Topics: Chopper, Cutting blade, Silage corn
Introduction Considering the low cost of the wind power production and its relatively good compatibility with the environment, wind farms have shown extensive growth in the past few years. Considering the importance of using the wind power and its advantages, the careful planning is needed to identify the available generation potentials in a region or a country to facilitate its increased use. By the end of 2009, the capacity of wind turbines installed in the wind farms of Iran was 92 MW, which...
Topics: Parsabad, Weibull Parameters, Wind energy, Wind energy density, Wind power density
Introduction Life cycle assessment of food products is an appropriate method to understand the energy consumption and production of environmental burdens. Dairy production process has considerable effect on climate change in various ways, and the scale of these effects depends on the practices of dairy industry, dairy farmers and feed growers. This study examined the life cycle of production of dairy products in Kermanshah city. For this purpose, the whole life was divided in two sections:...
Topics: Cradle-to-grave, Dairy products, Life cycle assessment, Midpoint categories
Introduction Diesterol is a new specific term which denotes a mixture of fossil diesel fuel (D), vegetable oil methyl ester called biodiesel (B) and plant derived ethanol (E). Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of alternative fuels in order to meet the emission standards and to reduce the dependency on fossil fuel. Biodiesel and ethanol have been considered as major alternative fuels, as they are derived from renewable sources. These fuels are well oxygenated and...
Topics: Biodiesel, Ethanol, Power, Torque, Response surface
Introduction Nowadays, enhancing the impact-resistant and wear-resistant properties of the parts and devices used in the agriculture is necessary to increase the efficiency and lifetime. Among of metals, mild steels due to their properties and low economic cost widely used in the manufacturing of agricultural equipment, but one of their problems is the low wear resistance. So, some methods such as carbon surface hardening, induction hardening, etc., were used to improve the tribological...
Topics: Plasma nitriding, Mild steel, Tribological behavior
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Introduction Mechanized harvesting of sugarcane by harvesters and the lack of proper management of harvesting, increase the cost of production and eventually become unprofitable. In the case of sugarcane harvester, because the systems are used to be repaired, increasing in system consumption will reduce machine reliability (Failure rate will increase). So, timely annual overhaul has effective role in enhancing the reliability of sugarcane harvesting machines. Because of time importance...
Topics: Amir-Kabir Agro-Industry, GERT method, Scheduling, Work Breakdowns Structure (WBS)
Introduction One of the most important sources of the sugar production is sugarcane.Sugar is one of the eight human food sources (wheat, rice, corn, sugar, cattle, sorghum, millet and cassava). Also sugarcane is mainly used for livestock feed, electricity generation, fiber and fertilizer and in many countries sugarcane is a renewable source for the biofuel. The efficient use of inputs in agriculture lead to the sustainable production and help to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse...
Topics: Artificial neural networks, Energy, GHG emission, Modeling, Plant
Introduction Iran as one of the largest producers of poultry in Asia and plays major role in feeding the world's population, particularly in the poultry industry. Research about this industry will help to improve the quality and the quantity of products. Increasing of the concentration of toxic gases such as NH 3 (ammonia), CO 2 (carbon dioxide), SH 2 and CH 4 in poultry houses comes from bird activity inside the barn is one of the basic problems of the farming. Increasing the amount of these...
Topics: Ammonia emission, Broilers, Regression model, Relative humidity, Temperature
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Introduction The olive fruit ( Olea europaea L.) is so sensitive to impact like many other crops that would lead to mechanical damage and bruising which reduce the quality of it. The olive fruit damage includes a brownish bruise at the bruised location. Most mechanical impact damage occurs during harvesting, handling and transportation. Bruise sensitivity of two common olive cultivars in Iran (cv. Roghani and cv. Conservolea) was studied by free fall method because of development of the area...
Topics: Absorbed energy, Free fall experiment, Impact force, Mechanical damage, Olive fruit
Introduction The mechanical impacts occur mainly during harvesting and post-harvesting operations, lead to the breaking of cell membranes in cellular structure that dependS on impact intensity. Furthermore, turgor pressure of potato tissue is influenced by the micromechanical and the physiological changes in the storage duration. Micromechanical changes of potato tissue due to the mechanical impact need to be monitored by microscopic images during storage. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is...
Topics: Cell turgor pressure, Impact damage, Micromechanical behavior, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),...
Introduction In recent decays, the microwave heating treatment is one of the best ways for the pest control. It is difficult to determine temperature in different parts of materials by Thermometer, but we can solve this problem by Comsol Multiphysics Software. In a research, results of a farm test were consistent with laboratory data and high temperature area was belonged to the outer part of wooden piece (Massa et al. , 2015). The numerical simulation of Microwave heating was successfully done...
Topics: Comsol multiphysics software, Microwave, Simulation, Temperature profile prediction
Introduction Field management is a part of precision agriculture (PA) which has positive environmental and economic effects on quality of plant productions. Nitrogen needs of plant, depends on climate conditions and growing pattern. The optimum of nitrogen fertilizer is varied from fields to fields. Nitrogen management causes uniform shape and size of potatoes, on the other hand decreases the inward and outward damages (Stark and Brown, 2003). Between different herbal indices, NDVI is the most...
Topics: Greenseeker, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Sattelite images
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Introduction Science of rheology has numerous applications in various fields of the food industry such as process assessment, acceptance of products and sales. Fluid behavior changes during processing due to an adverse change in the consistency and due to the combined operations such as mixing, heating, cooling, etc. In this regard, viscosity is an important factor for quality assessment in most of the materials. To measure the viscosity, Viscometer devices are used which are directly in...
Topics: Digital image processing, Pattern Recognition, Real time, Viscosity
Introduction The artichoke is part of the foods from the vegetable group that provide important nutrients like vitamin A and C, potassium and fiber which used as a food and medicine. In the pharmaceutical sector, dried extracts are used in the preparation of pills and capsules. Dried extracts can be prepared from the dehydration of a concentrated extractive solution from herbal materials (leaves, roots, seeds, etc.), resulting in a dried powder. The spray drying is widely used in the...
Topics: Artichoke leaves, Extract powder, Grey level co-occurrence matrix, Textural features, Vacuum spray...
Introduction Global increase in the food demand and challenges regarding the water, energy and fertile soil has made it clear that current strategies are no longer efficient for maintaining food safety. Therefore, attention to novel, science-based, seasonal and climate-independent farming methods which could result in the higher crop quality and quantity is an inescapable decision. Among all agricultural practices and technologies, intensive culture and hydroponic methods in controlled...
Topics: Fuzzy logic, Hydroponic, Intelligent irrigation, Rotary cropping, Solar energy
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Introduction Tree felling is an important part of forest exploitation. According to the condition of Iranian forests, mechanization in these forests has not been grown as it should be. Therefore, a main part of tree felling operations are performed by chainsaw. This machine can cause high level hand-arm vibration which is one of the main reasons of white finger syndrome. This syndrome affects the nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and joints of the hand, wrist, and arm. Reducing and controlling...
Topics: Chainsaw, Combustion, Frequency-weighted vibration acceleration, One-tired octave bands
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Introduction It is common to use rod weeders for onion harvesting according to their prevention of root blocking in front of the machine and separation of onion bulbs from soil by shaking. Chesson et al. , (1977), used a rod weeder for manufacturing an onion harvester. This machine had a rectangular rotor axis with 25mm×25mm cross section. The rotor power was provided by a hydro-motor. An investigation into onion losses during the harvesting operation showed that the majority of crop damages...
Topics: Forward velocity, Kinematic indices, Rotational speed, Working depth
Introduction Nowadays, the best method for fertilizing trees is spot treatment via hole-digger. Conventional mechanical hole-diggers have several drawbacks such as auger’s non-continuous and limited speeds due to using a mechanical gearbox, and risks of getting stuck inside the hole and motor reaction force to the operator. On the other hand, a three-point hitch hole-digger has problems such as the lack of maneuverability in confined spaces and high prices. Meanwhile, preparation of these...
Topics: Design, Hole-digger, Machine efficiency, Power, Specific fuel consumption
Introduction Understanding the status of tractor power in any region is a key factor in setting a mechanization planning to improve the capacity of mechanized operations. For this reason, it is necessary that the available tractor power in each region meet the needs of agricultural operations in the most demanding time of cropping season in terms of operations related to machinery. Materials and Methods The objective of this study is needs assessment and prioritizing the power arrival in the...
Topics: FAHP, FTOPSIS, Needs assessment, Mechanization level
Introduction In this research, a part of the requirements for the establishment of a network of consultancy, agricultural engineering and technical services in the agricultural sector, which is related to the location of these centers, has been reviewed. The location of these centers has been done through the determination of the field of operation and the appropriate establishment of consulting, engineering, and agricultural consulting companies based on regional capacities and taking into...
Topics: Agricultural services, Branch and bond algorithm, Maximum covering model, Facility location, Demand...
Introduction More than 40 percent of the world population is now dependent on biomass as their main source of energy for cooking. In Iran, the lack of access roads and inefficient transportation structure have made some societies to adopt biomass as the main energy source for cooking. In such societies, inefficient traditional three-wall cook stoves (TCS) are the sole method of cooking with biomass, which corresponds to the large fuel consumption and smoke emission. Biomass gasifier cook stoves...
Topics: Agricultural wastes, Pyrolysis, Stove, Thermal efficiency
Introduction Geographical location and climatic conditions are the important factors affecting the wind energy potential of each region. Iran is a vast country with different climates and the exploitation of its wind energy needs to study and research on the meteorological data. In the study area during the warm season and the hottest hours of the day, coinciding with peak electricity consumption in the region and the country, wind blowing continuously carried out. The surpassed consumption...
Topics: Weibull distribution function, Wind direction, Wind energy, Wind speed
Introduction Today, grapes are cultivated in a vast zone worldwide. Grapes are among the major horticultural produced in Iran and the country is ranked 10th in the world for the grape production. Therefore, efficient use of energy from this crop is very important. Energy is one of the principal requirements for the economic growth and development of agriculture. Scientific forecasts and analysis of energy consumption will be of great importance for planning the energy strategies and policies....
Topics: Energy analysis, Grape, Life cycle assessment, Productivity
Introduction Tillage as a preliminary step for agricultural production consumes large amounts of energy. Regarding the energy crisis and the greenhouse gas emissions caused by the indiscriminate use of fossil fuels, many efforts have been done to reduce energy consumption as much as possible. About half of the energy used in the crop production has been dedicated to tillage operations; hence the optimization of tillage tools performance can lead to decrease the energy loss. Tillage operation in...
Topics: Fuel consumption, MF285tractor, Optimization, Regression model, Tensile force
Introduction In recent years, the exergy analysis method has been widely used in the design, simulation and performance assessment of various thermal systems. In this regard, this method may be applied to various types of engines for identifying losses and efficiencies. This analysis is based on the second law of thermodynamic. Exergy is a potential or quality of energy. It is possible to make sustainable quality assessment of energy.  In this study, the second law of thermodynamics is...
Topics: Biodiesel, Diesel, Energy, Exergy, Response surface
Introduction Presently, the loss of ground water levels and the increase in dissolved salts have given importance to the determination of salinity and the management of their variations in irrigated farms. Soil electrical conductivity is an indirect method to measure soil salts. The direct electrode contact method (Wenner method) is one of the widely used methods to rapidly measure soil ECa in farms. However, soil scientists prefer soil actual electrical conductivity (saturated extract...
Topics: Apparent electrical conductivity, Extract electrical conductivity, RBF neural network, Soil salinity
Introduction Nowadays the packaging of a product is considered as a symbol of its quality and has a direct effect on its consumer-satisfaction and sales. The visual inspection method is much slower and more error-prone than that of automated method which is used for mass production. Also, this method has other problems such as high labor cost, fatigue, low accuracy, and inconsistency due to various environmental conditions such as lighting, or lack of concentration as well as lack of standards...
Topics: Machine vision, Packaging, Production line, Quality control, Soft drink
Introduction Convective air drying is one of the oldest and most popular drying methods. Designing and controlling the convective air drying needs the mathematical description of the moisture transfer during the drying process, known as drying kinetics. Fick’s second law of diffusion can be used for modelling the moisture distribution inside the moist object during drying process. Mathematical modeling of drying process is a very important tool, as it contributes to understand better moisture...
Topics: Apple drying, Modeling, Numerical solution, Pseudospectral method
Introduction Garlic ( Allium sativum L.) is an important Allium crop in the world. Due to its therapeutic properties, it was cultivated in many countries. Furthermore, garlic is usually used as a flavoring agent; it may be used in the shape of powder or granule as a valuable condiment for foods. In addition to its use in food products, it was also widely used as an anticancer agent. Shallot ( Allium hiertifolium Boiss. L) is a perennial and bulbous plant. It is from Alliaceae family and is an...
Topics: Artificial neural network, Fluidized bed dryer, Fuzzy logic, Garlic and Shallot, Moisture ratio
Introduction One of the most important factors in agricultural production is nitrogen which has a great impact on plant growing, yield performance and plant quality production. The optimum amount of nitrogen fertilizer is varied from fields to fields. There are some time consuming and costly ways to measure the nitrogen content of plants or soil, which are inappropriate for extended field or for a long growing season. Fast and remote optical sensors calculate greenness of plant using...
Topics: Chlorophyll, GreenSeeker, Nitrogen, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), SPAD
Introduction The texture of fresh fruit is determined by the structural and mechanical properties of tissue. It depends on climate, maturity, variety and postharvest condition. During ripening, due to loss of turgor, degradation of starch and cell walls, the flesh of apple softens. The relationship between fruit quality and its physiological changes has been widely investigated. Using techniques according to the principles of force-deformation, impact, and vibration tests, texture of fruit and...
Topics: Creep test, Laser imaging, Penetration test, Prediction, Uniaxial compression test
Introduction Olive is one of the plants, that has been cultivated for long in Iran. The average extracted oil is about 65 kg per tree. Four to five kg olives give approximately one liter oil. Olive harvesting problem, is one of the obstacles to development cultivation in Golestan province. Concurrency olive harvesting time with a number of field crops, seasonal precipitation and a lack of the workers are some limitations for development of this fields. Investigative study of the alternative...
Topics: Average maturity index, Damaging index, Harvesting methods, Harvesting time, Olive
Introduction Long drying time and high energy consumption are the big problems in paddy drying using conventional batch type dryer. Besides, non-uniformity occurs in paddy rice dried and low milling quality. Paddy is over dried in lower layers and broken kernel chance increased in milling process. Using of a new pattern for warm air causes to better air passing through the paddy bulk and uniformity of drying. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a good method for modeling of air passing in...
Topics: Computational fluid dynamics, Modeling, Paddy dryer, Porous media
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Introduction During filling a silo, granular material containing a range of particle sizes, the fine material accumulates under the filling point. The inclined surface of stationary bed particle which is formed in silos during filling process acts similar to a sieve through which the smaller particle fall. This effect is called sifting. As a result of the mentioned effect, much finer particles form a vertical cylindrical zone of high concentration at the silo center. For optimal design in...
Topics: Corn, Filling method, Fine distribution pattern, Material flow, Nonlinear model, Silo
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Introduction Nowadays, due to growth and development of the husbandry and its worthiness in providing human basic needs, affecting parameters such as costs, efficiency and fuel consumption is significantly important. So, increasing the efficiency of threshing machine could lead us to huge savings in energy. However using the conventional drums and concaves have some problems such as damaging  seeds due to impact, complicated manufacturing technology and spending a lot of energy in separating...
Topics: Drum and Concave, Husker, Seed Pod, Soybean
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Introduction Harvesting is one of the most difficult steps in cabbage production that is usually a costly intensive operation. Cabbage harvesting is often done by human labors in Iran. According to customs administration’s statistics, more than 54000 tons of cabbages have been exported from Iran in 2015. Development of cabbage harvesting industry is necessary, because of the large cultivation area and the short available harvesting time. So far, a few studies have been done on cabbage...
Topics: Cabbage, Forward velocity, Harvesting machine, Narrow leg tools, Puller belts
Introduction The sugar industry usually gathers huge amounts of information during normal production operations, which is rarely used to study the relative importance of both management and environment on sugarcane yield performance. Yield prediction is a very significant problem of agricultural organizations. Each agronomist wants to know how much yield to expect as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of C5.0 and QUEST algorithms to predict the yield of...
Topics: Agriculture, Amir-Kabir Agro-Industry, Data mining, Evaluation
Introduction Given the risk management and improving the process, reliability is important in operations and production management, especially agricultural process. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is regarded as one of the most powerful methods in this area. High applicability and proper analyzability of FMEA have caused to be among the most important techniques of systems for risk analysis and safety improvement. Risk management in all sectors is important, especially in agricultural...
Topics: ANP, FMEA, Mill Failures, Risk, Sugarcane, Transportation
Introduction Greenhouse cultivation has been increased in response to population growth, reduction in available supplies and arable lands and raising the standards of living. The quality and quantity of the products are profoundly affected by the greenhouse temperature. Therefore, providing an appropriate heating system is an elementary requirement for greenhouse cultivation. A number of factors such as glazing material, greenhouse configuration, product type, and climate conditions should be...
Topics: Exergy efficiency, Experimental verification, Heat transfer, Parabolic trough solar collector,...
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Introduction Pollinating elevated date palms has been a challenging problem for many years. A few types of equipment have been designed and manufactured in the last fifty years, using either low pressure or compressed air to overcome this problem. However traditional pollination is still the most popular method in none-mechanized and small date farms. In the present research, a light portable electrical pollen-duster has been developed and tested. Materials and Methods A powerful ducted fan,...
Topics: Date palm, Fruit set, Pollen-duster
Introduction Pneumatic conveying is a continuous and flexible material handling method which uses positive or negative air pressure to convey materials in pipe. This conveying system is generally divided into two groups of dilute and dense phase. The purpose of this research was to create spiral grooves inside horizontal pipes which transfer granular materials under dense phase. Also, the performance of these pipes was compared with control pipes. Finally, friction factors obtained in this...
Topics: Dense phase, Friction factor, Inner groove of pipe, Pneumatic conveying of material
Introduction In recent years, with development of industrial products with complex and precise systems, the demand for CNC machines has been increasing, and as its technology has been progressed, more failure modes have been developed with complex and multi-purpose structures. The necessity of CNC machines’ reliability is also more evident than ever due to its impact on production and its implementation costs. Aiming at reducing the risks and managing the performance of the CNC machine parts...
Topics: CNC lathe machine, Fuzzy FMEA, Mechanical parts, Prioritizing, Risk management
  Introduction The researchers have been currently focused on replacing fossil fuels by biofuels to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.  Biofuels provide low greenhouse emissions with the reduction of oil import. The biofuels can play an important role economically becomes more clear when their relatively developed agricultural sector is taken into account. Bioethanol, biodiesel and to a lesser extent pure vegetable oils are recently considered as most promising biofuels. Since 19 century,...
Topics: Biodiesel, Cost, Ethanol, Response surface
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Introduction Rice is one of the most important cereal grains in the world. Milling is one of the most important phases of the paddy processing that affects the quality and quantity of the product. Postharvest losses include threshing, drying, transportation and milling contains about 30–40% of total produced rice in developing country. Parboiling increases the mailing efficiency of rice from 51% to 80%, protein, fat and ash content. Champa variety is one of the most important varieties of...
Topics: Champa rice, Parboiling, Rice breakage percentage, Milling efficiency, Whiteness degree
Introduction High energy consumption and non-uniformity drying in conventional batch type dryer are the common problems in paddy dying industry. Non-uniformity drying causes to kernel breaking chance in the milling process. Using new dryers with better performance can solve the drying problem and energy saving. In this research, the operation of a re-circulating batch dryer was compared with a fixed bed batch dryer (conventional dryer) for paddy drying. Materials and Methods This research was...
Topics: Drying, Energy, Paddy, Re-circulating dryer, Rice milling
Introduction Grape fruit set its fruits and shortly after planting and due to high nutritious value and excellent food quality has been welcomed by many people in the world, but considering its soft tissue and high softening velocity and sensitivity to fungi attack it is known as an extensively vulnerable fruit. One of the most important ways to maintain fruit quality, decrease vulnerably and assist more appropriate storage, is the use of coating method and proper packing of agricultural...
Topics: Chitosan coating, Chemical, Grape, Mechanical, Physical properties, Storage
Introduction Fruits and vegetables play an important role in food supply and public health. This group of agricultural products due to high humidity are perishable and most of them (5 to 50 percent) waste during post-harvest operation. Decreasing and minimizing such waste as "hidden harvest" could be an effective way to save food and increase profitability. Despite the surplus of the fruit production in the country, our position in terms of exportation is not commensurate with...
Topics: Kiwifruit stiffness, Neural network, Nondestructive acoustic test, Shelf life, Signal processing
Introduction Date palm is one of the most valuable horticultural products in Iran, which includes 16% of non-oil exports to the world. Kerman province has the second rank for the cultivation area of date palm in Iran. Having information about the exact cultivated area has gained importance for further decision makings. To determine the cultivated area, organizations usually use census which has the disadvantages of high cost, wasting time and labor intensive. The aim of this research was to...
Topics: Date palm, Neural networks, Support vector machines, Supervised classification, Unsupervised...
Introduction Lack of water resources, increasing demands for food, the optimal use of water and land, and food security are of the most important reasons for the development of greenhouses in the country. The benefits of greenhouse cultivation consisted of the possibility to produce off-season, increase harvest period, reduce the production costs, increase economic efficiency and etc. Regarding the conditions of the greenhouse, in terms of temperature and humidity, a site is susceptible to...
Topics: Auto counting, Insect, Intelligent spraying, Yellow sticky card
Introduction Carrot is one of the most important agricultural products used by millions of people all over the world. Quality assessment of agricultural products is one of the most important factors in improving the marketability of agricultural products. In the market, carrots with irregular shapes are not commonly picked by customers due to their appearance. This causes to remain those carrots in the market for a long time and then decay. Therefore, adopting an appropriate method for sorting...
Topics: Artificial intelligent, Carrot, Grading, Machine vision, Shape
Introduction Leaf color is usually used as a guide for assessments of nutrient status and plant health. Most of the existing methods that examined relationships between chlorophyll status and carotenoid of leaf color were developed for particular species. Different methods have been developed to measure chlorophyll status and carotenoid. However, the high cost and difficulty to use have restricted their application, whereas the handheld chlorophyll meters such as the SPAD has become popular in...
Topics: Carotenoid, Chlorophyll, Color space, Image processing
Introduction Optimizing the energy consumption in mechanized agriculture is becoming more important due to the limited energy sources in the world. In this regard, optimization of the cutting blades is presented in this study by modifying the geometric form of the blade to reduce the forage cutting energy. Hence, two new blades, inspired by the geometric profiles of front claws of mole crickets and teeth of grasshoppers were designed and built using the biomimetic method (the method for...
Topics: Biomimetic, Energy, Grasshopper, Mole cricket, Mower blade
Introduction Essences or essential oils are aromatic compounds that are found in different organs of the plants. Essences can be classified into three groups of natural, synthetic and natural like. Most of the methods that are used to detect and to distinguish essential oils are based on chromatographic methods. However, these analytical methods are time consuming and require expert operators to work with required devices. Moreover, it is necessary to prepare the samples. An electronic nose is...
Topics: Electronic nose, Essential oil, PCA, LDA, ANN
Introduction According to the importance of energy and the impact of this input on the final price of a product, selection of materials and components of poultry saloons is very important.  Poultry saloons are divided into two types: open saloons and closed saloons. In closed saloons, the choice of materials and components of the saloon (door, window, etc.) are more sensitive than the open type. Due to the climatic conditions of Khuzestan province, all of the used saloons in this province are...
Topics: Building components, Carrier software, Cooling load, Economic comparison, Heating load
Introduction Optimal operation and maintenance of engineering systems heavily relies on the accurate prediction of their failures. Repairable engineering systems are well known in industries. A repairable engineering system indicates that the performance of this system after each failure can be restored through suitable maintenance. It is normally a complex system composed of a number of components. Failure prediction of a repairable system and its subsystems is an important topic in the...
Topics: Sugarcane harvester, forecasting, ARIMA, Efficiency
Introduction Considering the high consumption of diesel fuel in the agricultural sector, it is necessary to find solutions to reduce its consumption, and it will be feasible to have a convenient mathematical model more easily and transparently.Fuel and lubrication costs range from at least 16% to more than 45% of total machine costs, depending on the type of fuel and the amount of time that the tractor or the machine carries out for agricultural operations. Therefore, the fuel consumption index...
Topics: Cobb-Douglas model, Diesel Fuel, Farm Size, Operation Time, Irrigation Wheat
Introduction In recent years, with increasing population growth and improving livelihoods, the consumption of vegetable oils has been increasing and has led to an increase in the level of oilseed cultivation. Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) is an economically important crop which is widely cultivated all over the world. Sesame has been considered as an oil plant for cultivation in Iran's climatic conditions recently. Sesame contains about 58-44% oil, 18-25% protein and 13.5% carbohydrate. Sesame...
Topics: Artificial neural networks, Die dimension, Extraction, Press screw, Rotational speed, Sesame oil,...
Introduction Soil compaction reduces soil porosity and thus, increases the resistance and bulk density of the soil. These changes limit water and air movement and root penetration in the soil and ultimately, they may reduce the seed germination and the crop yield. For planting sugar beets, tractors and equipment need to move several times on the ground, which is a factor in soil re-compaction and the loss of the effects of previous tillage. Therefore, if, after planting, inter-row tillage was...
Topics: Cultivator, Inter-row subsoiling, Soil compaction, Sugar beet, Water requirements
Introduction One of the main factors affecting plant growth is soil compaction. More attention should be paid to soil compaction than the past. Soil compaction not only destroys the soil structure, but also leads to a heavier soil structure with natural cavities. The rolling resistance reduces energy and occurs when the tire moves on a soft soil and rolling resistance of the tire is brought about by two processes of soil deformation and wheel change. This force is influenced by the design of...
Topics: Soil, Compaction, Moisture, Rolling resistance, Electrical conductivity
Introduction Cereals as one of the most important sources of food plants could provide more than 70% of the food for the human population. Passing of water from the magnetic field is among approachable methods in order to reduce the total amount of water used for irrigation. Moreover, magnetized water is a new concept for increasing the water efficiency. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of the magnetized water on some of features containing dry weight, germination...
Topics: Germination indices, length and weight vigor, Magnetic water, wheat
Introduction Due to problems such as water resources constraints, poor soil and soil organic matter, and the problems related conventional tillage, the attention paid to protective tillage equipment should be taken into consideration by farmers. Today, agricultural machinery designers and manufacturers are looking for ways to resolve the problems due to the lack of water and soil resources and the reduction in fuel resources. One of these solutions is the optimization of agricultural machinery....
Topics: Optimum forward speed, Optimum tilt angle blade, Optimum tillage depth, Tractive efficiency
Introduction Immature birds, like humans and many animals, pass through the puberty period to sexual maturity that is accompanied by sound changes and after the sexual maturity, the sound structure evolves. The puberty period is one of the most important periods in the breeder chicken farms. Because the feeding of roosters at this age can delay or accelerate the time of sexual maturity. On the other hand, the diagnosis of mature roosters to mating with chickens increases egg production in early...
Topics: Bio-Acoustic signal Processing, Rooster, Puberty, Linear predictive coding (LPC), k- nearest...
Introduction The issue of noise pollution is one of the concerns of most societies and industries because of their relationship to the environmental comfort of life or work of people are paying attention. The Aero-acoustics not only because of government regulations on the noise pollution, but also due to the increasing demand of the people's living standards and create a safe environment for farm animals is considered important. At the same time, products with high aero-acoustic performance...
Topics: Noise, Radiator fan, computational fluid dynamics, broadband noise
Introduction Large industrial factories often discharge significant quantities of low-pressure steam (dead steam) into the atmosphere, which causes energy losses. Retaining low-pressure steam content reduces boiler load, resulting in energy savings and lower costs for the fuel consumption (for example, gas consumption bill in a factory). The boosted-pressure steam is used in processes such as distillation, hot water production, space heating or vacuum generation. If the vapor pressure for the...
Topics: Thermo-compressor, computational fluid dynamics, Control volume method, Consumption energy
Introduction Corn harvest losses are imposed by several factors, the most important of which is harvesting-time. Since the harvesting-time is coincident with the rainy season, it is necessary to appropriately estimate the corn harvest time to avoid harvesting losses and losing the next cultivation. Accordingly, in the current research, the effect of harvesting-time on corn losses during the month and the day has been into consideration. An expert fuzzy system was designed to predict the best...
Topics: corn, fuzzy expert system, Harvest losses, prediction of harvest time
Introduction Controlling greenhouse microclimate not only influences the growth of plants, but is also critical in the spread of diseases inside the greenhouse. The microclimate parameters are inside air, roof, crop and soil temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, and carbon dioxide concentration. Predicting the microclimate conditions inside a greenhouse and enabling the use of automatic control systems are the two main objectives of greenhouse climate model. The microclimate inside a...
Topics: Neural Network, Even-span greenhouse, Modeling, intelligent greenhouses
Introduction Dracocephalum moldavica L. is an annual plant with blue or white flowers and fragrant leaves which belongs to the family of Lamiaceae with the height of up to 80 cm. This plant is native to Central Asia and is accepted in Central and Eastern Europe. In Iran, it is mainly grown in the province of West Azarbaijan and the Alborz Mountains. The essential oils and extracts derived from the secondary metabolisms which are mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry, dietary, cosmetic,...
Topics: Optimization, Spray-drying, TOPSIS method, RSM method, Drying conditions, Moldavian Balm powder
Introduction The most costly part of poultry breeding is feeding. Due to the noticeable developments in animal husbandry and agricultural sectors, it is necessary to use the mechanized methods to reduce the casualties, increase the productivity as well as reduce the time and cost in each of these sectors. Reducing the particle size is one of the ways to process cereals which improves the mixing and also the nutritional value of the feed and the quality of the pellet feed. Optimizing the...
Topics: Fineness, hammer mill, milling, Optimization, work capacity
Introduction Tillage is a very important operation that influences the growth and productivity of agricultural products. It is necessary to introduce some conditions to improve soil physical properties, aeration, permeability and root development in tillage operations. However, in primary tillage, especially when moldboard ploughs are used, this may be time consuming and costly for researchers to use it in their research. Some researchers use physical experiments to perform the work, which the...
Topics: Artificial neural network, Finite Element Modeling, Mouldboard plough, Response surface...
Introduction Stereo vision is an approach to 3D information from multiple 2D views of a scene. The 3D information can be extracted from a pair image, as known stereo pair by estimating the relative depth of points in the scene. Soil aggregate size distribution is one of the most important issues in the agriculture sector which highly affects energy consumed for preparing the field before planting. Mean weight diameter of clods is a standard metric for determining clod (big aggregates) size....
Topics: Mean weight diameter, Soil clod, Stereo vision, Tillage
Introduction Increasing the production efficiency is an important goal in precision farming. The use of precision farming requires a lot of labor work. Also, due to the risk of agricultural operations, it is not recommended to do it directly by humans. Therefore, it is necessary for agricultural operations to be carried out automatically. For this reason, the application of robotics in agricultural environments, especially in the greenhouse, is increasing. The first step in automatic farming is...
Topics: ROS, Greenhouse, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), Stereo vision
Introduction One the most important discussions of the world community is the importance and the role of edible oils in the nutrition and physical health of individuals, especially in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. One of these oils, used in cooking, is cow ghee. Cow ghee should be free of vegetable oil, animal fat, mineral oils, flavored additives and any other external ingredients. It is hard to find a technique that can easily and reliably measure the quality of the oil. So far,...
Topics: Semiconductor sensors, cow ghee, Machine olfaction, Principal component analysis
Introduction The annually production of cattle manure is estimated around six million tons in Iran. Manure transportation with high moisture and low density recognized as crucial issue. The densification of dry or wet manure is the profound method for decreasing the manure volume which reduces the cost of handling and storage. Besides, the particle size is one of the important factors in the pellet production. Ball mills, vibratory mills, hammer mills, knife mills, two roll mills, colloid...
Topics: Cattle manure, Geometric mean particle diameter, Particle size distribution, wet cattle manure size...
In this study, the effect of conservation tillage and irrigation methods on the soil properties, cotton yield, and water productivity was evaluated in a wheat-cotton cropping system in the form of a split-plot experimental design. The main plots were irrigation using the three methods including surface irrigation, drip tape irrigation, and sprinkler irrigation. Tillage methods including zero tillage, reduced tillage, and conventional tillage were considered as subplots in this research. Results...
Topics: Cotton, Soil bulk density, Soil infiltration rate, Tillage methods, Water consumption, Water...
The eggshell of birds, as a natural shield and package, protects the tissues inside it from microbial and mechanical damages. Proper intake of calcium, as an important and effective factor in increasing the strength and quality of the eggshell, could reduce complications. In this paper, the effect of dietary calcium at five different levels on engineering features of Japanese quail eggs in a in their first laying period was investigated. The values for an average of mass, volume, specific mass,...
Topics: Calcium, Eggshell, Mechanical properties, Physical properties, Strength
A robust numerical analysis was proposed for simulating the rebound velocity pendulum method for melon. For considered varieties (Zard-Eyvanekey and Sousky-Sabz varieties), the change in impact parameters (extracted from excitation by pendulum) was studied for five stages of ripening. With the melon ripeness, the rebound velocity, rebound height, relative rebound height, rebound angle, rebound energy and coefficient of restitution (velocity ratio) increased, while the absorbed energy decreased...
Topics: Firmness, Impact analysis, Melon, Non-destructive method
Harvesting is one of the most important field operations in sunflower production. Seed damage and low separation efficiency are the top concerns of harvesting sunflower. In this study, a threshing cylinder with rubber teeth and a concave for harvesting sunflower were designed and evaluated. The variable parameters were threshing cylinder speed (TCS), threshing space (TS) and moisture content (MC) of sunflower head. Azargol variety was used to evaluate the threshing unit. The tests were...
Topics: Sunflower harvesting, Threshing model, Threshing unit
The purpose of this study was to model and optimize the offline refinement operations of sugarcane harvester hydraulic oil using RSM. For this purpose, the effects of independent variables of operating hours (250, 500 and 750 hours), Twin Dip Filter Mesh (7, 9 and 11 microns) and hydraulic oil refining times (0, 1 and 2) on variables of water contamination, uncleanness level (NAS), silicon (Si), viscosity (Vis) and oil acid number (TAN) were evaluated. The results indicated that all models were...
Topics: Offline Refinement of Hydraulic Oil, Optimization, Response surface method, Sugarcane harvester
The overall objective of this research is to check the abilities of two non-destructive techniques, the digital imaging (DI) and laser light backscattering imaging (LLBI), on detection of α-solanine toxicant in potatoes. Potato samples were classified in healthy and toxic categories based on the amount of α-solanine. For quantifying α-solanine in potato tubers, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used. The results of classification showed that single layer perceptron...
Topics: Backscattering imaging, Digital imaging, Glycoalkaloids, Liquid chromatography, Quality inspection
Fire Blight (FB) is the most destructive bacterial disease of pome fruit trees around the world. In recent years, spectrometry has been shown to be an accurate and real-time sensing technology for plant disease detection. So, the main objective of this research is early detecting FB of pear trees by using Visible-Near-infrared spectrometry. To get this goal, the reflectance spectra of healthy leaves (ND), non-symptomatic (NS), and symptomatic diseased leaves (SY) were captured in the...
Topics: Classification, Early detection, Fire blight, Near-infrared, Spectrometry
In this paper, performance of a no-till corn planter in a soil covered with previous wheat residue was evaluated. Three levels of crop residue cover (CRC): 30, 45 and 60%, two planting schemes; on-bed and in-furrow and two forward speed: (4 and 8 km h-1) were considered as treatments. The field was evaluated by ground and air observations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capability of aerial images captured by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in identifying the distances...
Topics: crop residue cover (CRC), multiple index, miss index, Quality of feed index, precision index
The aim of this study is to design, fabricate and evaluate a new type of up-cut rotary tiller and to develop correct formulas to estimate its torque and draft force using the laws of classical mechanics. In order to verify the model, a real-sized prototype of the rotary tiller was tested. It was hypothesized that four processes are involved to create the rotary tiller torque, namely soil cutting, soil lifting, soil-metal friction, and soil velocity. Furthermore, it was assumed that the...
Topics: theoretical modeling, torque and draft force measurement, up-cut rotary tiller